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Later that year, Kim received the Nobel Peace Prize "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular".

However, South Korean and Japanese relations later soured because of conflicting claims of sovereignty over the Liancourt Rocks.

In , there was an escalation in attacks by North Korea. In November Yeonpyeong island was attacked by a significant North Korean artillery barrage, with 4 people losing their lives.

The lack of a strong response to these attacks from both South Korea and the international community the official UN report declined to explicitly name North Korea as the perpetrator for the Cheonan sinking caused significant anger with the South Korean public.

Daughter of another former president, Park Chung-hee , she carried on a conservative brand of politics. President Park Geun-hye's administration was formally accused of corruption, bribery, and influence-peddling for the involvement of close friend Choi Soon-sil in state affairs.

There followed a series of massive public demonstrations from November [] and she was removed from office. His tenure so far has seen an improving political relationship with North Korea, some increasing divergence in the military alliance with the United States, and the successful hosting of the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang.

This mountainous peninsula is flanked by the Yellow Sea to the west, and the Sea of Japan to the east. Its total area is , square kilometers 38, South Korea can be divided into four general regions: an eastern region of high mountain ranges and narrow coastal plains ; a western region of broad coastal plains, river basins , and rolling hills; a southwestern region of mountains and valleys; and a southeastern region dominated by the broad basin of the Nakdong River.

South Korea's terrain is mostly mountainous, most of which is not arable. About three thousand islands, mostly small and uninhabited, lie off the western and southern coasts of South Korea.

Jeju-do is about kilometers 62 miles off the southern coast of South Korea. It is the country's largest island, with an area of 1, square kilometers square miles.

Jeju is also the site of South Korea's highest point: Hallasan , an extinct volcano , reaches 1, meters 6, feet above sea level.

Winter temperatures are higher along the southern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. South Korea has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter.

Spring usually lasts from late March to early May, summer from mid-May to early September, autumn from mid-September to early November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March.

Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The southern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds, heavy rains and sometime floods.

During the first 20 years of South Korea's growth surge, little effort was made to preserve the environment. The green-based economic strategy is a comprehensive overhaul of South Korea's economy, utilizing nearly two percent of the national GDP.

The greening initiative includes such efforts as a nationwide bike network, solar and wind energy, lowering oil dependent vehicles, backing daylight saving time and extensive usage of environmentally friendly technologies such as LEDs in electronics and lighting.

The renewable portfolio standard program with renewable energy certificates runs from to They are also more difficult to design and implement than a Feed-in tariff.

Seoul's tap water recently became safe to drink, with city officials branding it "Arisu" in a bid to convince the public.

Another multibillion-dollar project was the restoration of Cheonggyecheon , a stream running through downtown Seoul that had earlier been paved over by a motorway.

Like many democratic states, [] South Korea has a government divided into three branches: executive , judicial , and legislative. The executive and legislative branches operate primarily at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch also carry out local functions.

Local governments are semi-autonomous, and contain executive and legislative bodies of their own. The judicial branch operates at both the national and local levels.

South Korea is a constitutional democracy. The constitution has been revised several times since its first promulgation in at independence.

However, it has retained many broad characteristics and with the exception of the short-lived Second Republic of South Korea , the country has always had a presidential system with an independent chief executive.

The first direct election was also held in Although South Korea experienced a series of military dictatorships from the s until the s, it has since developed into a successful liberal democracy.

The major administrative divisions in South Korea are eight provinces , one special self-governing province , six metropolitan cities self-governing cities that are not part of any province , one special city and one special self-governing city.

In April , South Korea's population was estimated to be around Aside from micro-states and city-states, South Korea is the world's third most densely-populated country.

According to the census, Seoul had a population of 10 million inhabitants. The Seoul National Capital Area has Other major cities include Busan 3.

The population has also been shaped by international migration. This trend of net entry reversed over the next 40 years because of emigration, especially to North America through the United States and Canada.

South Korea's total population in was Precise numbers are difficult since statistics do not record ethnicity and given many immigrants are ethnically Korean themselves, and some South Korean citizens are not ethnically Korean.

The percentage of foreign nationals has been growing rapidly. For example, migrants from China PRC make up Large number of ethnic Koreans live overseas, sometimes in Korean ethnic neighbourhoods also known as Koreatowns.

The four largest diaspora population can be found in China 2. South Korea's birthrate was the world's lowest in , [] at an annual rate of approximately 9 births per people.

A centralized administration in South Korea oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to the third and final year of high school.

The school year is divided into two semesters, the first of which begins at the beginning of March and ends in mid-July, the second of which begins in late August and ends in mid-February.

The schedules are not uniformly standardized and vary from school to school. Most South Korean middle schools and high schools have school uniforms, modeled on western-style uniforms.

Boys' uniforms usually consist of trousers and white shirts, and girls wear skirts and white shirts this only applies in middle schools and high schools.

The country adopted a new educational program to increase the number of their foreign students through According to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology , the number of scholarships for foreign students in South Korea would have under the program doubled by that time, and the number of foreign students would have reached , South Korea is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, mathematics and sciences with the average student scoring , compared with the OECD average of , placing it ninth in the world and has one of the world's most highly educated labor forces among OECD countries.

Higher education is a serious issue in South Korea society, where it is viewed as one of the fundamental cornerstones of South Korean life.

Education is regarded with a high priority for South Korean families as success in education is often a source of pride for families and within South Korean society at large, and is a necessity to improve one's socioeconomic position in South Korean society.

Graduating from a top university is the ultimate marker of prestige, high socioeconomic status, promising marriage prospects, and a respectable career path.

With incredible pressure on high school students to secure places at the nation's best universities, its institutional reputation and alumni networks are strong predictors of future career prospects.

There is a major cultural taboo in South Korean society attached to those who have not achieved formal university education where those who do not hold university degrees face social prejudice and are often looked down by others as second-class citizens resulting in fewer opportunities for employment, improvement of one's socioeconomic position and prospects for marriage.

In , the country spent 5. International opinion regarding the South Korean education system has been divided. It has been praised for various reasons, including its comparatively high test results and its major role in ushering South Korea's economic development creating one of the world's most educated workforces.

President Barack Obama has also praised the country's rigorous school system, where over 80 percent of South Korean high school graduates go on to university.

The system's rigid and hierarchical structure has been criticized for stifling creativity and innovation; [] [] described as intensely and "brutally" competitive, [] the system is often blamed for the high suicide rate in the country, particularly the growing rates among those aged 10— Various media outlets attribute the country's high suicide rate to the nationwide anxiety around the country's college entrance exams, which determine the trajectory of students' entire lives and careers.

Korean is the official language of South Korea, and is classified by most linguists as a language isolate. Korean is not related to any Chinese languages, although it incorporates a number of words that are Chinese in origin.

Additionally, Korean spoken in South Korea uses a significant number of loan words from English and other European languages.

Korean uses an indigenous writing system called Hangul , created in by King Sejong to provide a convenient alternative to the Classical Chinese Hanja characters that were difficult to learn and did not fit the Korean language well.

South Korea still uses some Chinese Hanja characters in limited areas, such as print media and legal documentation. The Korean language in South Korea has a standard dialect known as Seoul after the capital city , with an additional 4 Korean language dialect groups in use around the country.

Almost all South Korean students today learn English throughout their education, with some optionally choosing Japanese or Mandarin as well.

Religion in South Korea census [] []. According to the results of the census of more than half of the South Korean population According to the census, Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution, and there is no state religion.

Christianity is South Korea's largest organized religion, accounting for more than half of all South Korean adherents of religious organizations.

There are approximately Roman Catholics increased significantly between the s and the s, but declined throughout the s.

The weakness of Korean Sindo, which, unlike Japanese Shinto and China's religious system , never developed into a national religion of high status, [] combined with the impoverished state of Korean Buddhism after years of suppression at the hands of the Joseon state, by the 20th century it was virtually extinct left a free hand to Christian churches.

Christianity's similarity to native religious narratives has been studied as another factor that contributed to its success in the peninsula.

Among Christian denominations, Presbyterianism is the largest. South Korea is also the second-largest missionary-sending nation, after the United States.

Buddhism was introduced to Korea in the 4th century. In the other states of the Three Kingdoms Period , Goguryeo and Baekje , it was made the state religion respectively in and It was later suppressed throughout much of the subsequent history under the unified kingdom of Joseon — , which officially adopted a strict Korean Confucianism.

South Korea has a universal healthcare system. Suicide in South Korea is a serious and widespread problem and the country ranks poorly on world happiness reports for a high-income state.

Life expectancy has been rising rapidly and South Korea ranked 11th in the world for life expectancy at South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with more than countries.

The country has also been a member of the United Nations since , when it became a member state at the same time as North Korea.

Both North and South Korea claim complete sovereignty over the entire peninsula and outlying islands. Political figures such as Kim Koo worked to reconcile the two governments even after the Korean War.

Despite the Sunshine Policy and efforts at reconciliation, the progress was complicated by North Korean missile tests in , , , , and As of early [update] , relationships between North and South Korea were very tense; North Korea had been reported to have deployed missiles, [] ended its former agreements with South Korea, [] and threatened South Korea and the United States not to interfere with a satellite launch it had planned.

President Lee Myung-bak declared in May that Seoul would cut all trade with North Korea as part of measures primarily aimed at striking back at North Korea diplomatically and financially, except for the joint Kaesong Industrial Project, and humanitarian aid.

Despite the continuing ties, Kaesong industrial zone has seen a large decrease in investment and manpower as a result of this military conflict.

In February , the Kaesong complex was closed by Seoul in reaction to North Korea's launch of a rocket earlier in the month [] unanimously condemned by the United Nations security council.

Historically, Korea had close relations with the dynasties in China, and some Korean kingdoms were members of the Imperial Chinese tributary system.

The two countries sought to improve bilateral relations and lifted the forty-year-old trade embargo, [] and South Korean—Chinese relations have improved steadily since The deployment of THAAD defense missiles by the United States military in South Korea in response to North Korean missile tests has been protested strongly by the Chinese government, concerned that the technologically advanced missile defense could be used more broadly against China.

South Korea and Russia are participants in the Six-party talks on the North Korea's nuclear proliferation issue. Moon Jae-in's administration has focused on increasing South Korea's consumption of natural gas.

These plans include re-opening dialogue around a natural gas pipeline that would come from Russia and pass through North Korea.

Korea and Japan have had difficult relations since ancient times , but also significant cultural exchange, with Korea acting as the gateway between Asia and Japan.

Contemporary perceptions of Japan are still largely defined by Japan's 35 year colonization of Korea in the 20th century, which is generally regarded in South Korea as having been very negative.

There is heavy anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea because of a number of unsettled Japanese-Korean disputes , many of which stem from the period of Japanese occupation after the Japanese annexation of Korea.

The Liancourt Rocks were the first Korean territories to be forcibly colonized by Japan in Although it was again returned to Korea along with the rest of its territory in with the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan does not recant on its claims that the Liancourt Rocks are Japanese territory.

The free trade agreement was approved in September , and took effect on July 1, Nevertheless, EU companies have significant problems accessing and operating in the South Korean market because of stringent standards and testing requirements for products and services often creating barriers to trade.

Upon the onset of the Korean War in , U. The United States participation was critical for preventing the near defeat of the Republic of Korea by northern forces, as well as fighting back for the territory gains that define the South Korean nation today.

Following the Armistice, South Korea and the U. Naval Forces Korea. The two nations have strong economic, diplomatic, and military ties, although they have at times disagreed with regard to policies towards North Korea, and with regard to some of South Korea's industrial activities that involve usage of rocket or nuclear technology.

There had also been strong anti-American sentiment during certain periods, which has largely moderated in the modern day. The two nations also share a close economic relationship, with the U.

On October 12, , the U. Congress passed the long-stalled trade agreement with South Korea. Unresolved tension with North Korea has prompted South Korea to allocate 2.

The South Korean military is ranked as the 6th most powerful military force in the world as of All South Korean males are constitutionally required to serve in the military, typically 18 months.

Previous exceptions for South Korean citizens of mixed race no longer apply since The South Korean army has 2, tanks in operation, including the K1A1 and K2 Black Panther , which form the backbone of the South Korean army's mechanized armor and infantry forces.

A sizable arsenal of many artillery systems, including 1, self-propelled K55 and K9 Thunder howitzers and helicopters and UAVs of numerous types, are assembled to provide additional fire, reconnaissance, and logistics support.

South Korea's smaller but more advanced artillery force and wide range of airborne reconnaissance platforms are pivotal in the counter-battery suppression of North Korea's large artillery force, which operates more than 13, artillery systems deployed in various state of fortification and mobility.

The South Korean navy has made its first major transformation into a blue-water navy through the formation of the Strategic Mobile Fleet, which includes a battle group of Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin class destroyers , Dokdo class amphibious assault ship , AIP-driven Type submarines , and King Sejong the Great class destroyers , which is equipped with the latest baseline of Aegis fleet-defense system that allows the ships to track and destroy multiple cruise missiles and ballistic missiles simultaneously, forming an integral part of South Korea's indigenous missile defense umbrella against the North Korean military's missile threat.

From time to time, South Korea has sent its troops overseas to assist American forces. It has participated in most major conflicts that the United States has been involved in the past 50 years.

A further 1, were deployed since to reinforce UN peacekeeping forces in Lebanon. The United States has stationed a substantial contingent of troops to defend South Korea.

There are approximately 28, U. The U. Army and Seventh Air Force of the U. Air Force. There has been long-term agreement between the United States and South Korea that South Korea should eventually assume the lead for its own defense.

This transition to a South Korean command has been slow and often postponed, although it is currently scheduled to occur in the early s.

Male citizens who refuse or reject to undertake military services because of conscientious objection are typically imprisoned, with over individuals usually imprisoned at any given time; more than the rest of the world put together.

However, in a court ruling of , conscientious objectors were permitted to reject military service. South Korea's mixed economy [] [] [] ranks 11th nominal [] and 13th purchasing power parity GDP in the world, identifying it as one of the G major economies.

It is a developed country with a high-income economy and is the most industrialized member country of the OECD. South Korean brands such as LG Electronics and Samsung are internationally famous and garnered South Korea's reputation for its quality electronics and other manufactured goods.

Its massive investment in education has taken the country from mass illiteracy to a major international technological powerhouse.

The country's national economy benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree.

Despite the South Korean economy's high growth potential and apparent structural stability, the country suffers damage to its credit rating in the stock market because of the belligerence of North Korea in times of deep military crises, which has an adverse effect on South Korean financial markets.

Furthermore, South Korea was one of the few developed countries that were able to avoid a recession during the global financial crisis.

The unemployment rate in South Korea also remained low in , at 3. The following list includes the largest South Korean companies by revenue in who are all listed as part of the Fortune Global :.

South Korea has a technologically advanced transport network consisting of high-speed railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that crisscross the country.

Korea Expressway Corporation operates the toll highways and service amenities en route. Korail provides frequent train services to all major South Korean cities.

South Korea's main gateway and largest airport is Incheon International Airport , serving 58 million passengers in There are also many airports that were built as part of the infrastructure boom but are barely used.

The national carrier, Korean Air served over 26,, passengers, including almost 19,, international passengers in Combined, South Korean airlines serve international routes.

South Korea is the world's fifth-largest nuclear power producer and the second-largest in Asia as of [update]. Fuel production and waste handling technologies have also been developed locally.

It is also a member of the ITER project. South Korea is an emerging exporter of nuclear reactors , having concluded agreements with the UAE to build and maintain four advanced nuclear reactors, [] with Jordan for a research nuclear reactor, [] [] and with Argentina for construction and repair of heavy-water nuclear reactors.

South Korea is not allowed to enrich uranium or develop traditional uranium enrichment technology on its own, because of US political pressure, [] unlike most major nuclear powers such as Japan, Germany, and France, competitors of South Korea in the international nuclear market.

This impediment to South Korea's indigenous nuclear industrial undertaking has sparked occasional diplomatic rows between the two allies.

While South Korea is successful in exporting its electricity-generating nuclear technology and nuclear reactors, it cannot capitalize on the market for nuclear enrichment facilities and refineries , preventing it from further expanding its export niche.

South Korea has sought unique technologies such as pyroprocessing to circumvent these obstacles and seek a more advantageous competition.

South Korea is the third highest ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI after Singapore and Hong Kong respectively — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.

South Korea ranked number 10 overall in the NRI ranking, up from 11 in In , 17 million foreign tourists visited South Korea [] [] With rising tourist prospects, especially from foreign countries outside of Asia, the South Korean government has set a target of attracting 20 million foreign tourists a year by South Korean tourism is driven by many factors, including the prominence of Korean pop culture such as South Korean pop music and television dramas , known as the Korean Wave or Hallyu , has gained popularity throughout East Asia.

The Hyundai Research Institute reported that the Korean Wave has a direct impact in encouraging direct foreign investment back into the country through demand for products, and the tourism industry.

According to an analysis by economist Han Sang-Wan, a 1 percent increase in the exports of Korean cultural content pushes consumer goods exports up 0.

The South Korean pension system was created to provide benefits to persons reaching old age, families and persons stricken with death of their primary breadwinner, and for the purposes of stabilizing its nations welfare state.

In there was a total of 18,, insured individuals with only around , persons excluded from mandatory contribution.

Eligibility for the national pension scheme is not dependent on income but on age and residence, where those between the ages of 18 to 59 are covered.

Employees between the ages of 18 to 59 are covered under the workplace-based pension scheme and contribute 4. Voluntarily insured persons are not subjected to mandatory coverage but can choose to be.

This category comprises retirees who voluntarily choose to have additional benefits, individuals under the age of 27 without income, and individuals whose spouses are covered under a public welfare system, whether military, governmental, or private school teacher pensions.

Voluntarily and continuously insured persons consists of individuals 60 years of age who want to fulfill the minimum insured period of 20 years to qualify for old age pension benefits.

South Korea's old-age pension scheme covers individuals age 60 or older for the rest of their life as long as they have satisfied the minimum of 20 years of national pension coverage beforehand.

There also is an 'active old-age pension' scheme that covers individuals age 60 to 65 engaged in activities yielding earned income.

Individuals age of 55 and younger than 60 who are not engaged in activities yielding earned income are eligible to be covered under the 'early old-age pension' scheme.

Scientific and technological development in the South Korea at first did not occur largely because of more pressing matters such as the division of Korea and the Korean War that occurred right after its independence.

It was not until the s under the dictatorship of Park Chung-hee where South Korea's economy rapidly grew from industrialisation and the Chaebol corporations such as Samsung and LG.

Ever since the industrialization of South Korea's economy, South Korea has placed its focus on technology-based corporations, which has been supported by infrastructure developments by the government.

South Korean corporations Samsung and LG were ranked first and third largest mobile phone companies in the world in the first quarter of , respectively.

South Korea has the fastest Internet download speeds in the world, [] with an average download speed of There is a growing trend of inventions of new types of media or apps, utilizing the 4G and 5G internet infrastructure in South Korea.

South Korea has today the infrastructures to meet a density of population and culture that has the capability to create strong local particularity.

Following cyberattacks in the first half of , whereby government, news-media, television station, and bank websites were compromised, the national government committed to the training of 5, new cybersecurity experts by The South Korean government blamed North Korea for these attacks, as well as incidents that occurred in , and , but Pyongyang denies the accusations.

In late September , a computer-security competition jointly sponsored by the defense ministry and the National Intelligence Service was announced.

South Korea's government maintains a broad-ranging approach toward the regulation of specific online content and imposes a substantial level of censorship on election-related discourse and on many websites that the government deems subversive or socially harmful.

South Korea has sent up 10 satellites since , all using foreign rockets and overseas launch pads, notably Arirang-1 in , and Arirang-2 in as part of its space partnership with Russia.

South Korea's efforts to build an indigenous space launch vehicle have been marred due to persistent political pressure from the United States, who had for many decades hindered South Korea's indigenous rocket and missile development programs [] in fear of their possible connection to clandestine military ballistic missile programs, which Korea many times insisted did not violate the research and development guidelines stipulated by US-Korea agreements on restriction of South Korean rocket technology research and development.

Plans of creating English-teaching robot assistants to compensate for the shortage of teachers were announced in February , with the robots being deployed to most preschools and kindergartens by Recently, research and development in genetics and cloning has received increasing attention, with the first successful cloning of a dog, Snuppy in , and the cloning of two females of an endangered species of wolves [ which?

The rapid growth of the industry has resulted in significant voids in regulation of ethics, as was highlighted by the scientific misconduct case involving Hwang Woo-Suk.

South Korea shares its traditional culture with North Korea , but the two Koreas have developed distinct contemporary forms of culture since the peninsula was divided in Historically, while the culture of Korea has been heavily influenced by that of neighboring China, it has nevertheless managed to develop a unique cultural identity that is distinct from its larger neighbor.

The South Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism actively encourages the traditional arts, as well as modern forms, through funding and education programs.

The industrialization and urbanization of South Korea have brought many changes to the way modern Koreans live.

Changing economics and lifestyles have led to a concentration of population in major cities, especially the capital Seoul, with multi-generational households separating into nuclear family living arrangements.

A Euromonitor study found that South Koreans drink the most alcohol on a weekly basis compared to the rest of the world.

South Koreans drink Korean art has been highly influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism , which can be seen in the many traditional paintings, sculptures, ceramics and the performing arts.

Post-war modern Korean art started to flourish in the s and s, when South Korean artists took interest in geometrical shapes and intangible subjects.

Establishing a harmony between man and nature was also a favorite of this time. Because of social instability, social issues appeared as main subjects in the s.

Art was influenced by various international events and exhibits in Korea, and with it brought more diversity.

Because of South Korea's tumultuous history, construction and destruction has been repeated endlessly, resulting in an interesting melange of architectural styles and designs.

Korean traditional architecture is characterized by its harmony with nature. Ancient architects adopted the bracket system characterized by thatched roofs and heated floors called ondol.

Traditional architecture can be seen in the palaces and temples, preserved old houses called hanok , [] and special sites like Hahoe Folk Village , Yangdong Village of Gyeongju and Korean Folk Village.

Western architecture was first introduced to Korea at the end of the 19th century. Churches, offices for foreign legislation, schools and university buildings were built in new styles.

With the annexation of Korea by Japan in the colonial regime intervened in Korea's architectural heritage, and Japanese-style modern architecture was imposed.

The anti-Japanese sentiment, and the Korean War, led to the destruction of most buildings constructed during that time. Korean architecture entered a new phase of development during the post-Korean War reconstruction, incorporating modern architectural trends and styles.

Stimulated by the economic growth in the s and s, active redevelopment saw new horizons in architectural design. In the aftermath of the Seoul Olympics, South Korea has witnessed a wide variation of styles in its architectural landscape due, in large part, to the opening up of the market to foreign architects.

Ingredients and dishes vary by province. There are many significant regional dishes that have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day.

The Korean royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals consumed both by the royal family and ordinary Korean citizens have been regulated by a unique culture of etiquette.

Korean cuisine is largely based on rice , noodles , tofu , vegetables, fish and meats. Every meal is accompanied by numerous banchan.

Soups are also a common part of a Korean meal and are served as part of the main course rather than at the beginning or the end of the meal.

Popular Korean alcoholic beverages include Soju , Makgeolli and Bokbunja ju. Korea is unique among East Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks.

Metal chopsticks have been discovered in Goguryeo archaeological sites. In addition to domestic consumption, South Korea has a thriving entertainment industry where various facets of South Korean entertainment, including television dramas, films, and popular music, has generated significant financial revenues for the nation's economy.

The cultural phenomenon known as Hallyu or the "Korean Wave", has swept many countries across Asia making South Korea a major soft power as an exporter of popular culture and entertainment, rivaling Western nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom.

Until the s, trot and traditional Korean folk based ballads dominated South Korean popular music.

The emergence of the South Korean pop group Seo Taiji and Boys in marked a turning point for South Korean popular music, also known as K-pop , as the genre modernized itself from incorporating elements of popular musical genres from across the world such as Western popular music , experimental , jazz , gospel , Latin , classical , hip hop , rhythm and blues , electronic dance , reggae , country , folk , and rock on top of its uniquely traditional Korean music roots.

K-pop stars and groups are well known across Asia and have found international fame making millions of dollars in export revenue.

Many K-pop acts have also been able secure a strong overseas following using online social media platforms such as the video sharing website YouTube.

South Korean singer PSY became an international sensation when his song " Gangnam Style " topped global music charts in Since the success of the film Shiri in , the Korean film industry has begun to gain recognition internationally.

Domestic film has a dominant share of the market, partly because of the existence of screen quotas requiring cinemas to show Korean films at least 73 days a year.

South Korean television shows have become popular outside of Korea. South Korean television dramas, known as K-dramas , have begun to find fame internationally.

There are many official public holidays in South Korea. Memorial Day is celebrated on June 6, and its purpose is to honor the men and women who died in South Korea's independence movement.

Constitution Day is on July 17, and it celebrates the promulgation of Constitution of the Republic of Korea. Every 15th day of the 8th lunar month, Koreans celebrate the Midautumn Festival , in which Koreans visit their ancestral hometowns and eat a variety of traditional Korean foods.

October 3 is National Foundation Day. Hangul Day, on October 9 commemorates the invention of hangul , the native alphabet of the Korean language.

The martial art taekwondo originated in Korea. In the s and s, modern rules were standardized, with taekwondo becoming an official Olympic sport in Football and baseball have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Korea.

However, the polling did not indicate the extent to which respondents follow both sports. The Korea Republic national team as it is known has qualified for every World Cup since Mexico , and has broken out of the group stage twice: first in , and again in , when it was defeated by eventual semi-finalist Uruguay in the Round of Baseball was first introduced to Korea in and has since become increasingly popular, with some sources claiming it has surpassed football as the most popular sport in the country.

The South Korea national team finished third in the World Baseball Classic and second in the tournament. The team's final game against Japan was widely watched in Korea, with a large screen at Gwanghwamun crossing in Seoul broadcasting the game live.

Several Korean players have gone on to play in Major League Baseball. Basketball is a popular sport in the country as well.

South Korea has traditionally had one of the top basketball teams in Asia and one of the continent's strongest basketball divisions. Seoul hosted the and Asian Basketball Championship.

The Korea national basketball team has won a record number of 23 medals at the event to date. In , South Korea hosted the Summer Olympics in Seoul , coming fourth with 12 gold medals, 10 silver medals and 11 bronze medals.

South Korea regularly performs well in archery , shooting , table tennis , badminton , short track speed skating , handball , hockey , freestyle wrestling , Greco-Roman wrestling , baseball , judo , taekwondo , speed skating , figure Skating , and weightlifting.

South Korea has won more medals in the Winter Olympics than any other Asian country with a total of 45 medals 23 gold, 14 silver, and 8 bronze.

At the Winter Olympics , South Korea ranked fifth in the overall medal rankings. South Korea is especially strong in short track speed skating.

However, speed skating and figure skating are very popular, too, and ice hockey is an emerging sport with Anyang Halla winning their first ever Asia League Ice Hockey title in March Domestic horse racing events are also followed by South Koreans and Seoul Race Park in Gwacheon , Gyeonggi-do is located closest to Seoul out of the country's three tracks.

Competitive video gaming , also called eSports sometimes written e-Sports , has become more popular in South Korea in recent years, particularly among young people.

They can make a living out of their activity and top players can even make a significant amount of money with some high end Starcraft II players ending up making six figure salaries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Korea disambiguation. For the government in exile that used the same name from to , see Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

Country in East Asia. Land controlled by the Republic of Korea shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green. South Korean Korean.

See also: Names of Korea. Main article: History of Korea. Balhae violet and Silla blue , circa CE. The oldest surviving metal movable type book, the Jikji , was printed in , and Goryeo created the world's first metal-based movable type in Main article: History of South Korea.

Main article: Geography of South Korea. Main article: Climate of South Korea. Main article: Government of South Korea. Main article: Administrative divisions of South Korea.

North Korea. Yellow Sea. Korea Strait Busan Strait. Korea Strait Tsushima Strait. Sea of Japan East Sea. Main article: Demographics of South Korea.

See also: Koreans. Main article: Education in South Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean dialects.

Main article: Religion in South Korea. See also: Irreligion in South Korea. Protestantism Korean Buddhism Catholicism 7. Other 0. Main article: Health in South Korea.

Main article: Foreign relations of South Korea. Main article: North Korea—South Korea relations. Main article: Japan—South Korea relations.

Main article: South Korea—European Union relations. Main article: South Korea—United States relations. Main article: Republic of Korea Armed Forces.

This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

March This section needs to be updated. October Main article: Economy of South Korea. See also: List of largest companies of South Korea.

Graphical depiction of South Korea's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. Incheon International Airport 's Maglev station.

The Daegu Metro Line 3 monorail. Main article: Tourism in South Korea. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea.

See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. See also: Internet censorship in South Korea. Main article: Korea Aerospace Research Institute.

Main article: Culture of South Korea. See also: Culture of Korea. Main article: Korean art. Main article: Architecture of South Korea.

See also: Korean architecture. Main article: Korean cuisine. Main article: Public holidays in South Korea.

Main article: Sport in South Korea. Asia portal South Korea portal. Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Political Sciences : 6.

Archived from the original PDF on September 25, Retrieved January 16, Law No. Retrieved July 26, Retrieved October 5, In Demy, Timothy J.

Retrieved June 3, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 30, Daejeon : Korea National Statistical Office. Retrieved June 30, United Nations Development Programme.

December 10, Retrieved December 10, The History of the World. Oxford University Press. Retrieved July 15, Palgrave Macmillan.

History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. Retrieved November 8, East Asia: A New History.

Retrieved November 19, Tuttle Publishing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The Mori Memorial Foundation.

Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved May 6, Retrieved April 16, Retrieved April 14, The Lancet. Retrieved May 4, International Institute Journal.

The McGill Tribune. University of California Press. A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. The History of Korea. November 5, Korea — A Religious History.

United Daily News in Chinese. July 5, Retrieved March 28, Los Angeles Times. Monster Island. May 14, Archived from the original on November 1, The Kyunghyang Shinmun.

Retrieved July 2, Chosun Ilbo. Sthele Press. Retrieved June 10, Taehan minguk. In English it is translated as Republic of Korea or South Korea, names which to us foreigners denote the state as a political entity distinct from its northern neighbor.

To most people here, however, Taehan minguk conveys that sense only when used in contrastive proximity with the word Pukhan North Korea.

Ask South Koreans when the Taehan minguk was established; more will answer ' years ago' than 'in ,' because to them it is simply the full name for Hanguk , Korea, the homeland.

Free Online Library. Archived from the original on May 20, Library of Congress. Retrieved August 19, British Library.

Chronology Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. In Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod eds. A Dictionary of Media and Communication.

Cengage Learning. Canada: Royal Ontario Museum. December 12, Retrieved April 25, About Korea. Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved July 12, Asian Shravan.

Archived from the original on January 28, Retrieved February 17, Most textbooks and professional historians, however, treat him as a myth.

Archaeology of Asia. Korea Between Empires. Columbia University Press. Brief History of Korea. Infobase Publishing. Retrieved April 17, Retrieved November 21, New history of Korea.

He launched a military expedition to expand his territory, opening the golden age of Goguryeo. The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press.

Retrieved July 29, Encyclopedia of Asian history. December 20, Indiana University Press. Retrieved October 11, KBS World Radio.

Archived from the original on August 28, Retrieved August 26, Universe Pub. Yang Ti, the next Sui emperor, proceeded in to mount an invasion of unprecedented magnitude, marshalling a huge force said to number over a million men.

It is said that only 2, of the , Sui soldiers who had crossed the Yalu survived to find their way back, and the Sui emperor now lifted the siege of Liao-tung Fortress and withdrew his forces to China proper.

Seoul: Hollym International Corporation. China, which had been split into many states since the early 3rd century, was reunified by the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century.

Only 2, Sui troops were able to flee from Korea. Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved September 12, Ewha Womans University Press.

January 1, The New History of Korean Civilization. July 3, Korea: Outline of a Civilisation. Korean History in Maps.

Retrieved February 24, Marshall Cavendish. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Moon Living Abroad in South Korea. Avalon Travel.

Retrieved September 30, Retrieved July 21, A History of Chinese Civilization. Korea held a dominant position in the north-eastern seas. Ennins Travels in Tang China.

From what Ennin tells us, it seems that commerce between East China, Korea and Japan was, for the most part, in the hands of men from Silla.

Here in the relatively dangerous waters on the eastern fringes of the world, they performed the same functions as did the traders of the placid Mediterranean on the western fringes.

This is a historical fact of considerable significance but one which has received virtually no attention in the standard historical compilations of that period or in the modern books based on these sources.

While there were limits to the influence of the Koreans along the eastern coast of China, there can be no doubt of their dominance over the waters off these shores.

The days of Korean maritime dominance in the Far East actually were numbered, but in Ennin's time the men of Silla were still the masters of the seas in their part of the world.

The History of Korea, 2nd Edition. A History of the World in Objects. Penguin UK. Arts of Korea. Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Rotarian. Rotary International.

After Pusan. Archived from the original on October 3, Seoul International Pub. Buddhist Exploration of Peace and Justice. Blue Pine Books. June 25, Speeches in World History.

Buswell; Jr, Donald S. Lopez November 24, The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. March 25, The Silk Road Encyclopedia.

Seoul Selection. Asian Folk Religion and Cultural Interaction. Rough Guides. The Rough Guide to China. June 21, Retrieved October 27, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

July 29, Archived from the original on August 29, Digital Jikji. Archived from the original on March 13, Greenwood Publishing Group.

Retrieved July 28, Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Retrieved August 1, The Mongolian-Khitan invasions of the late tenth century challenge the stability of the Koryo government, but a period of prosperity follows the defeat of the Khitan in Retrieved November 12, Retrieved July 27, Scott November 28, O'Reilly Media, Inc.

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Soups are also a common part of a Korean meal and are served as part of the main course rather than at the beginning or the end of the meal.

Popular Korean alcoholic beverages include Soju , Makgeolli and Bokbunja ju. Korea is unique among East Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks.

Metal chopsticks have been discovered in Goguryeo archaeological sites. In addition to domestic consumption, South Korea has a thriving entertainment industry where various facets of South Korean entertainment, including television dramas, films, and popular music, has generated significant financial revenues for the nation's economy.

The cultural phenomenon known as Hallyu or the "Korean Wave", has swept many countries across Asia making South Korea a major soft power as an exporter of popular culture and entertainment, rivaling Western nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom.

Until the s, trot and traditional Korean folk based ballads dominated South Korean popular music. The emergence of the South Korean pop group Seo Taiji and Boys in marked a turning point for South Korean popular music, also known as K-pop , as the genre modernized itself from incorporating elements of popular musical genres from across the world such as Western popular music , experimental , jazz , gospel , Latin , classical , hip hop , rhythm and blues , electronic dance , reggae , country , folk , and rock on top of its uniquely traditional Korean music roots.

K-pop stars and groups are well known across Asia and have found international fame making millions of dollars in export revenue.

Many K-pop acts have also been able secure a strong overseas following using online social media platforms such as the video sharing website YouTube.

South Korean singer PSY became an international sensation when his song " Gangnam Style " topped global music charts in Since the success of the film Shiri in , the Korean film industry has begun to gain recognition internationally.

Domestic film has a dominant share of the market, partly because of the existence of screen quotas requiring cinemas to show Korean films at least 73 days a year.

South Korean television shows have become popular outside of Korea. South Korean television dramas, known as K-dramas , have begun to find fame internationally.

There are many official public holidays in South Korea. Memorial Day is celebrated on June 6, and its purpose is to honor the men and women who died in South Korea's independence movement.

Constitution Day is on July 17, and it celebrates the promulgation of Constitution of the Republic of Korea.

Every 15th day of the 8th lunar month, Koreans celebrate the Midautumn Festival , in which Koreans visit their ancestral hometowns and eat a variety of traditional Korean foods.

October 3 is National Foundation Day. Hangul Day, on October 9 commemorates the invention of hangul , the native alphabet of the Korean language.

The martial art taekwondo originated in Korea. In the s and s, modern rules were standardized, with taekwondo becoming an official Olympic sport in Football and baseball have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Korea.

However, the polling did not indicate the extent to which respondents follow both sports. The Korea Republic national team as it is known has qualified for every World Cup since Mexico , and has broken out of the group stage twice: first in , and again in , when it was defeated by eventual semi-finalist Uruguay in the Round of Baseball was first introduced to Korea in and has since become increasingly popular, with some sources claiming it has surpassed football as the most popular sport in the country.

The South Korea national team finished third in the World Baseball Classic and second in the tournament. The team's final game against Japan was widely watched in Korea, with a large screen at Gwanghwamun crossing in Seoul broadcasting the game live.

Several Korean players have gone on to play in Major League Baseball. Basketball is a popular sport in the country as well. South Korea has traditionally had one of the top basketball teams in Asia and one of the continent's strongest basketball divisions.

Seoul hosted the and Asian Basketball Championship. The Korea national basketball team has won a record number of 23 medals at the event to date.

In , South Korea hosted the Summer Olympics in Seoul , coming fourth with 12 gold medals, 10 silver medals and 11 bronze medals.

South Korea regularly performs well in archery , shooting , table tennis , badminton , short track speed skating , handball , hockey , freestyle wrestling , Greco-Roman wrestling , baseball , judo , taekwondo , speed skating , figure Skating , and weightlifting.

South Korea has won more medals in the Winter Olympics than any other Asian country with a total of 45 medals 23 gold, 14 silver, and 8 bronze.

At the Winter Olympics , South Korea ranked fifth in the overall medal rankings. South Korea is especially strong in short track speed skating.

However, speed skating and figure skating are very popular, too, and ice hockey is an emerging sport with Anyang Halla winning their first ever Asia League Ice Hockey title in March Domestic horse racing events are also followed by South Koreans and Seoul Race Park in Gwacheon , Gyeonggi-do is located closest to Seoul out of the country's three tracks.

Competitive video gaming , also called eSports sometimes written e-Sports , has become more popular in South Korea in recent years, particularly among young people.

They can make a living out of their activity and top players can even make a significant amount of money with some high end Starcraft II players ending up making six figure salaries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Korea disambiguation. For the government in exile that used the same name from to , see Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

Country in East Asia. Land controlled by the Republic of Korea shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green.

South Korean Korean. See also: Names of Korea. Main article: History of Korea. Balhae violet and Silla blue , circa CE.

The oldest surviving metal movable type book, the Jikji , was printed in , and Goryeo created the world's first metal-based movable type in Main article: History of South Korea.

Main article: Geography of South Korea. Main article: Climate of South Korea. Main article: Government of South Korea. Main article: Administrative divisions of South Korea.

North Korea. Yellow Sea. Korea Strait Busan Strait. Korea Strait Tsushima Strait. Sea of Japan East Sea. Main article: Demographics of South Korea.

See also: Koreans. Main article: Education in South Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean dialects. Main article: Religion in South Korea.

See also: Irreligion in South Korea. Protestantism Korean Buddhism Catholicism 7. Other 0. Main article: Health in South Korea. Main article: Foreign relations of South Korea.

Main article: North Korea—South Korea relations. Main article: Japan—South Korea relations. Main article: South Korea—European Union relations.

Main article: South Korea—United States relations. Main article: Republic of Korea Armed Forces. This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. March This section needs to be updated.

October Main article: Economy of South Korea. See also: List of largest companies of South Korea. Graphical depiction of South Korea's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.

Incheon International Airport 's Maglev station. The Daegu Metro Line 3 monorail. Main article: Tourism in South Korea. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea.

See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. See also: Internet censorship in South Korea. Main article: Korea Aerospace Research Institute.

Main article: Culture of South Korea. See also: Culture of Korea. Main article: Korean art. Main article: Architecture of South Korea.

See also: Korean architecture. Main article: Korean cuisine. Main article: Public holidays in South Korea. Main article: Sport in South Korea. Asia portal South Korea portal.

Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Political Sciences : 6. Archived from the original PDF on September 25, Retrieved January 16, Law No.

Retrieved July 26, Retrieved October 5, In Demy, Timothy J. Retrieved June 3, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 30, Daejeon : Korea National Statistical Office.

Retrieved June 30, United Nations Development Programme. December 10, Retrieved December 10, The History of the World. Oxford University Press.

Retrieved July 15, Palgrave Macmillan. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. Retrieved November 8, East Asia: A New History.

Retrieved November 19, Tuttle Publishing. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. The Mori Memorial Foundation.

Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved May 6, Retrieved April 16, Retrieved April 14, The Lancet.

Retrieved May 4, International Institute Journal. The McGill Tribune. University of California Press. A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press.

The History of Korea. November 5, Korea — A Religious History. United Daily News in Chinese. July 5, Retrieved March 28, Los Angeles Times. Monster Island.

May 14, Archived from the original on November 1, The Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved July 2, Chosun Ilbo.

Sthele Press. Retrieved June 10, Taehan minguk. In English it is translated as Republic of Korea or South Korea, names which to us foreigners denote the state as a political entity distinct from its northern neighbor.

To most people here, however, Taehan minguk conveys that sense only when used in contrastive proximity with the word Pukhan North Korea. Ask South Koreans when the Taehan minguk was established; more will answer ' years ago' than 'in ,' because to them it is simply the full name for Hanguk , Korea, the homeland.

Free Online Library. Archived from the original on May 20, Library of Congress. Retrieved August 19, British Library. Chronology Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History".

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. In Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod eds. A Dictionary of Media and Communication.

Cengage Learning. Canada: Royal Ontario Museum. December 12, Retrieved April 25, About Korea. Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved July 12, Asian Shravan.

Archived from the original on January 28, Retrieved February 17, Most textbooks and professional historians, however, treat him as a myth.

Archaeology of Asia. Korea Between Empires. Columbia University Press. Brief History of Korea. Infobase Publishing. Retrieved April 17, Retrieved November 21, New history of Korea.

He launched a military expedition to expand his territory, opening the golden age of Goguryeo. The Cambridge History of Japan.

Cambridge University Press. Retrieved July 29, Encyclopedia of Asian history. December 20, Indiana University Press. Retrieved October 11, KBS World Radio.

Archived from the original on August 28, Retrieved August 26, Universe Pub. Yang Ti, the next Sui emperor, proceeded in to mount an invasion of unprecedented magnitude, marshalling a huge force said to number over a million men.

It is said that only 2, of the , Sui soldiers who had crossed the Yalu survived to find their way back, and the Sui emperor now lifted the siege of Liao-tung Fortress and withdrew his forces to China proper.

Seoul: Hollym International Corporation. China, which had been split into many states since the early 3rd century, was reunified by the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century.

Only 2, Sui troops were able to flee from Korea. Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved September 12, Ewha Womans University Press. January 1, The New History of Korean Civilization.

July 3, Korea: Outline of a Civilisation. Korean History in Maps. Retrieved February 24, Marshall Cavendish. The Harvard Dictionary of Music.

Moon Living Abroad in South Korea. Avalon Travel. Retrieved September 30, Retrieved July 21, A History of Chinese Civilization. Korea held a dominant position in the north-eastern seas.

Ennins Travels in Tang China. From what Ennin tells us, it seems that commerce between East China, Korea and Japan was, for the most part, in the hands of men from Silla.

Here in the relatively dangerous waters on the eastern fringes of the world, they performed the same functions as did the traders of the placid Mediterranean on the western fringes.

This is a historical fact of considerable significance but one which has received virtually no attention in the standard historical compilations of that period or in the modern books based on these sources.

While there were limits to the influence of the Koreans along the eastern coast of China, there can be no doubt of their dominance over the waters off these shores.

The days of Korean maritime dominance in the Far East actually were numbered, but in Ennin's time the men of Silla were still the masters of the seas in their part of the world.

The History of Korea, 2nd Edition. A History of the World in Objects. Penguin UK. Arts of Korea. Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The Rotarian. Rotary International. After Pusan. Archived from the original on October 3, Seoul International Pub. Buddhist Exploration of Peace and Justice.

Blue Pine Books. June 25, Speeches in World History. Buswell; Jr, Donald S. Lopez November 24, The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism.

Princeton University Press. March 25, The Silk Road Encyclopedia. Seoul Selection. Asian Folk Religion and Cultural Interaction.

Rough Guides. The Rough Guide to China. June 21, Retrieved October 27, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

July 29, Archived from the original on August 29, Digital Jikji. Archived from the original on March 13, Greenwood Publishing Group.

Retrieved July 28, Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Retrieved August 1, The Mongolian-Khitan invasions of the late tenth century challenge the stability of the Koryo government, but a period of prosperity follows the defeat of the Khitan in Retrieved November 12, Retrieved July 27, Scott November 28, O'Reilly Media, Inc.

June 28, The Samurai Invasion of Korea — Osprey Publishing. Retrieved March 25, Japan At War: An Encyclopedia. John Whitney Hall.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Edward W. Wagner and Edward J. Seoul: Ilchokak, A Brief History of Korea. Archived from the original on May 2, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, ; pg.

International Relations of Asia. With three of the four major Cold War fault lines—divided Germany, divided Korea, divided China, and divided Vietnam—East Asia acquired the dubious distinction of having engendered the largest number of armed conflicts resulting in higher fatalities between and than any other region or sub-region.

Even in Asia, while Central and South Asia produced a regional total of 2. The Korean War: A History. Modern Library. Various encyclopedias state that the countries involved in the three-year conflict suffered a total of more than 4 million casualties, of which at least 2 million were civilians—a higher percentage than in World War II or Vietnam.

A total of 36, Americans lost their lives in the Korean theater; of these, 33, were killed in action, while 3, died there of nonhostile causes.

Some 92, Americans were wounded in action, and decades later, 8, were still reported as missing. South Korea sustained 1,, casualties, including , dead.

Casualties among other UN allies totaled 16,, including 3, dead. Estimated North Korean casualties numbered 2 million, including about one million civilians and , soldiers.

An estimated , Chinese soldiers lost their lives in combat. In Korea, war in the early s cost nearly 3 million lives, including nearly a million civilian dead in South Korea.

Before it ended, the Korean War cost over 3 million people their lives, including over 50, US servicemen and women and a much higher number of Chinese and Korean lives.

The war also set in motion a number of changes that led to the militarization and intensification of the Cold War. America in Vietnam.

For the Korean War the only hard statistic is that of American military deaths, which included 33, battle deaths and 20, who died of other causes.

The North Korean and Chinese Communists never published statistics of their casualties. The number of South Korean military deaths has been given as in excess of ,; the South Korean Ministry of Defense puts the number of killed and missing at , Estimates of communist troops killed are about one-half million.

The total number of Korean civilians who died in the fighting, which left almost every major city in North and South Korea in ruins, has been estimated at between 2 and 3 million.

This adds up to almost 1 million military deaths and a possible 2. The proportion of civilians killed in the major wars of this century and not only in the major ones has thus risen steadily.

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